Here is a list of the chemicals available - Please note that it is not necessarily what the turkish police is using : MONDAY, AUGUST 3, 2009Police disclosure on chemical agents used in their water cannons?
What is the margin of safety between incapacitating dose vis a vis lethal dose for the various chemical agents used as crowd control devices or as close quarter personal incapacitant sprays?
The types of chemical agents used in water cannon in law enforcement worldwide include the following:a) CS (o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile)
- is a white crystalline solid,believed to be more effective and safer thanb) CN (chloroacetophenone)
, which is believed to have a greater toxicity than CS, although it is not as potent and would therefore require larger amounts to be used to achieve the same effects. In consequence, the margin of safety between incapacitating dose and lethal dose for CN is much less than that for CS.c) Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)
is the oily extract (oleoresin) of the species Capsicum (peppers) and is a complex mixture of over one hundred volatile compounds. The active ingredients of OC, i.e. those components which cause the burning sensation and pain, are called capsaicinoids, the main one of which is called capsaicin. Capsaicin, and some other capsaicinoids, are used as topical treatments for painful conditions, as they selectively affect a part of the nervous system involved with pain sensations, resulting in the production of pain, with subsequent desensitisation to pain. The proportion of each of the capsaicinoids, and the total capsaicinoid content, of OC sprays varies between different manufacturers and between batches, as the composition differs, based on species of capsicum, time harvested and portion of the plant used. Although there has been much toxicological testing carried out on capsaicin over the years, this is not so for OC as a whole or for many of the other capsaicinoids. Hence, the lack of toxicological information on OC.d) PAVA (pelargonic acid vanillylamide)
, also commonly known as nonivamide, is a capsaicinoid which occurs naturally in OC and which is less pungent than capsaicin, although it is believed to work in the same way. In recent years, it has become available for use as an incapacitant spray and is produced synthetically for this purpose. PAVA is believed to have the following potential advantages over OC: it is a single compound, and therefore it would be easier to obtain all of the toxicological information necessary than would be the case for OC; also, as it is a single compound which is produced synthetically, it is of reproducible quality and pungency and not subject to the variations in strength and effectiveness which occur with OC products. At present, PAVA has gone through a number of toxicological tests, although as yet, not enough information is available to be able to recommend the use of PAVA in an incapacitant spray or other method of dissemination.e) CR (Dibenz (b.f.)-1:4-oxazepine)
, does not break down in water which would lead to problems with decontamination after use.
During the recent Mansuh ISA rally last Saturday (1/8/2009) the police FRUs had excessively used the water cannon against people who were present for a peaceful rally to submit a memorandum to the King. In the course of their spraying, unsuspecting members of the public including children were not spared.
Are the enforcement personnel over-zealous in discharging their duties or are they trying out the chemical agents on protestors as an opportunity to test the effectiveness of the chemical agents?
It would be in the best interest of the public that the police department disclose what kind of chemical agents are being used and any long-term effects from
exposure to such chemicals. There should be a public disclosure as to the dosage levels in the use of such chemical agents not exceeding the permitted limits.
This matter should be brought to Parliament's attention by Opposition MPs/ADUNS.
POSTED BY PAPILLONLIBERTE AT 12:28 PM
LABELS: POLICE BRUTALITY, VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS