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General Discussion => Human Rights Violations => Topic started by: jujyjuji on May 07, 2015, 15:24:04 PM

Title: Cables mentioning sexual abuses perpetrated by UN peacekeepers
Post by: jujyjuji on May 07, 2015, 15:24:04 PM
March 4 - April 10 Substantive Session Of Special Committee On Peacekeeping Operations (c-34)
Origin Secretary of State (United States)
Cable time Sat, 1 Mar 2008 02:55 UTC
Referenced by 08STATE30936, 09STATE18284


E.O. 12958: N/A

¶1. (U) The annual substantive session of the General
Assembly's Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations
(C-34) will be held March 4 to April 10. We have reviewed
the Secretary-General's report on implementation of the
recommendations of the 2007 session (A/62/627).
Canada chairs the working group, and will produce the
first draft of the 2008 C-34 report. USUN should discuss
with the Canadian UN Mission the issues laid out in
paragraphs 3 to 11, as our input to the draft report. We
expect that you will also discuss these issues with the
other members of the Peacekeeping Quadrilateral Group (UK
and Australia), plus other UN missions and DPKO/DFS as you
believe will be helpful in garnering support for USG
views. Points for inclusion in the U.S. opening statement
are in paragraph 2, and you may draw on these as well for
your discussions with other missions and the UN. USUN
should also use this cable as basis for discussions during
the C-34 session; updated and additional guidance will be
provided as necessary.
¶2. (U) Begin points for opening statement:
-- There has been substantial progress on a wide range of
issues over the past year.
-- In particular, we note that the restructuring of DPKO
and creation of DFS is underway, with progress being made
in recruiting for new positions. We commend the close
coordination between the two departments. We believe the
innovations, improved coordination both within UN
headquarters and between headquarters and field missions,
and the best, most efficient use of resources will help
the UN respond to the unprecedented and increasing demand
for peacekeeping capabilities. We welcome the creation of
integrated operational teams. We would appreciate an
update from DPKO/DFS on progress in recruitment and
restructuring since the Secretary-General's report was
issued in December.
--Attention has been paid throughout this process to
weaving together the critical work being done by military,
police and civilian components, to ensure that efforts by
various components are mutually reinforcing. The U.S.
believes that, despite all the challenges that continue to
face us, we should be proud of the thoughtful approach
that we, and the dedicated people of the UN, are taking to
address those challenges.
-- The US believes in an integrated approach to countries
emerging from conflict. The foundation must be laid from
the beginning for strong institutions and continuing
stability, which will be sustainable after peacekeepers
leave. There must always be a strategy for transition to
longer-term solutions, including work by bilateral and
multilateral development agencies. We note with
appreciation the work of the Peacebuilding Commission with
regard to Sierra Leone and Burundi, and note the ongoing
need for similar engagements elsewhere.
-- We share the concern of the Secretariat and UN
personnel stationed in often difficult situations around
the world that the UN have adequate, well-coordinated
security procedures. The U.S. looks forward to hearing
specific details on proposals for coordinating security
mechanisms for military, police and civilian staff.
-- The U.S. notes with appreciation the steps already
taken to enhance and reorganize the Office of Military
Affairs. We also welcome the substantial progress made in
building the Standing Police Capacity.
-- We will be interested in hearing more about the steps
the two departments are taking to improve core management
functions -- information management, public affairs,
contractual arrangements with personnel, and training.
These form the solid base for successful operations.
-- In various fora, including sub-groups of this
committee, over the past year we have made substantial
progress in addressing the continuing serious problem of
sexual exploitation and abuse of vulnerable persons by UN
personnel. We commend the steps DPKO has taken to
institutionalize training, monitoring and reporting
procedures, and the work OIOS is doing to investigate
allegations. We understand that OIOS has moved its field
investigators to regional hubs.  We are concerned that
this move may hamper OIOS' ability to gather evidence,
particularly in cases of alleged rape, in a timely
fashion. Finally, the U.S. calls on all countries
contributing personnel to UN missions to insist on the
highest standards of conduct and to discipline those who
commit offenses.
End points.
¶3. (SBU) "Consent": As USUN will recall, the U.S. stood
alone in the 2007 session in arguing against language in
the "Guiding Principles" section of the 2007 C-34 report
stating that consent of the parties is necessary for
deployment of a UN peacekeeping mission. While a number
of delegations agreed with the U.S. position, that the
Security Council has authority under the UN charter to
enforce the measures it deems necessary to maintain
international peace and security, they were not prepared
to hold up consensus on the C-34 report. The recently
issued "Capstone Doctrine," a field manual on UN
peacekeeping developed by DPKO in consultation with Member
States, contains ambiguous language distinguishing between
"peacekeeping" and "peace enforcement," which could be
read as implying that UN peacekeeping missions do not have
authority to enforce their mandates, even with a Chapter
VII mandate. However, this language could also be read
simply as a description of what has happened in practice
over the past decade: that enforcement has been carried
out by ad hoc coalitions of Member States or by regional
organizations, with Security Council authorization, not by
UN peacekeeping missions. Although the Capstone Doctrine
is an internal DPKO document, not an official UN document,
it will be widely cited and used as a reference in
Security Council and General Assembly discussions of UN
peacekeeping for years to come. Therefore, USUN should
seek clarification from DPKO on its understanding of this
point. Since that DPKO may prefer that the C-34 not
discuss the Capstone Doctrine (lest some members try to
reopen the document for discussion), USUN should also ask
DPKO and the Canadian UN Mission whether there are plans
to refer to the Doctrine in the draft C-34 report. USUN
should also underline for the Canadian UN mission, in
particular, our hope that we can work together to prevent
this issue from reemerging in the 2008 C-34 report, either
by introduction of new problematic language in the report
itself or by a blanket endorsement of the Capstone
Doctrine. If such language is proposed, USUN should seek
further guidance.
¶4. (SBU) Resource/staffing issues: The Secretary-General's
report notes the continued growth in UN peacekeeping and
the GA's decision in 2007 to approve many, but not all, of
the additional positions requested for headquarters support
of peacekeeping missions, and draws the conclusion that
additional resources (personnel, financial contributions
and specialized peacekeeping capacities) are still needed.
The USG anticipates that any suggestions for additional
assessed resources will be subject to rigorous scrutiny by
the budget committees. That said, we welcome the progress
that has been made in filling the positions approved as
part of the DPKO/DFS restructuring, as well as steps
already taken to ensure smooth coordination between the two
departments (e.g. an integrated team approach, co-location
of the U/SYGs and key staff of the two departments, a
revised information management system). We will be
interested in hearing more about recruitment, improved
information, records and communication systems, as well as
what key performance indicators and evaluation mechanisms
DPKO/DFS are developing. We note that the report
specifically calls for additional resources for the DPKO
Public Affairs Unit; the USG would like more information on
why the UN's central public affairs office would not be
able to provide additional support if needed. As
described, the composition of the integrated operational
teams (four for Africa, one each for Europe/Latin America
and Asia/Middle East, with specialist support) is a
reasonable approach. The report suggests that additional
resources will be needed for "thematic" and specialized
staff; the USG would prefer to see how the new system is
operating in practice before opening any discussion of
adding new positions, particularly since the GA just
approved the current number of slots. We will be
interested in the development and performance of the ad hoc
capacity in the Office of Operations for training and
guidance of political and specialist officers. The report
also raises, again, the proposed cadre of 2,500 career
civilian experts; in 2007 the ACABQ did not support this
proposal, in light of other recommendations for reforming
contractual arrangements for civilian staff. The USG sees
no reason to revisit the cadre proposal before the results
of revising contracting procedures are available.
¶5. (SBU) Security: The report notes that DPKO and DFS
will seek the C-34's support for creation of a full-time
security focal point in DPKO to ensure that guidance and
risk management for UN civilian, police and military
personnel are coordinated and consistent. The USG looks
forward to hearing the specifics of the proposal. USUN
should seek such specifics from DPKO as soon as possible,
including costs and staffing; on the face of it, this
appears to be a sensible suggestion.
¶6. (SBU) Military planning/oversight: The improvements to
and augmentation of the Office of Military Affairs are a
welcome step. The report notes a need for military
personnel with a range of key specialties. In principle
the USG supports enhancement of OMA's capacity. However,
since many of these positions would be funded through
assessed contributions, rather than by secondment (to
allow candidates from the range of troop-contributing
countries to be considered), the USG would expect any
specific proposals to be vetted by the budget committees.
We believe that the reorganized military/crisis cell is a
useful approach to the need to provide rapid, expert
advice in developing situations. We look forward to
DPKO's recommendations on modalities for planning for new
or changing operations.
¶7. (SBU) Enhanced rapid deployment capacity (ERDC): DPKO
will brief the C-34 on the response from Member States to
the call for ERDC support for UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNMIL
and MONUC. We understand that the response overall has
been minimal, and we anticipate that DPKO will advise the
C-34 that it will not be able to proceed with developing
ERDC. The USG is not in a position at this time to
contribute in any significant way to ERDC, beyond our
already substantial contribution to the assessed costs of
¶8. (SBU) Rule of law/security institutions: We welcome
the creation of an integrated office dealing with the
range of rule of law/security issues (including police,
justice, demining, demobilization, and security sector
reform) The USG recognizes that the demand for responses
to the complex security issues involved in the
peacekeeping/peacebuilding nexus continues to grow. This
is being addressed in part by international efforts (such
as COESPU). We underline that the integrated approach to
peacekeeping operations adopted in recent years calls for
laying the foundation for continuing efforts to build
institutions, but that there must always be a strategy for
transition to longer-term solutions, including work by
bilateral and multilateral development agencies. We look
forward to specific discussions of requirements in this
sector. The USG welcomes the progress on development and
use of the Standing Police Capacity, and supports the
relocation of the group to the UN Logistics Base in
Brindisi; this should help speed new or changed
requirements for policing in UN missions.
¶9. (SBU) Partnerships: As the report notes, UNAMID and
MINURCAT are new approaches to joint operations with
regional organizations; we are encouraged by the
creativity being shown in finding innovative ways to
address unusual situations. At the same time, we are
monitoring carefully how these creative arrangements can
best preserve clear chains of command and mission
effectiveness. We found the discussion of the difficulties
of coordinating the UN's administrative and financial
frameworks with those of potential external partners --
IFIs, NGOs, regional organizations -- to be
thought-provoking. We believe this would be an
interesting area for more detailed discussion, and we
welcome the establishment of the DPKO's new partnership
¶10. (SBU) Integrated Mission Planning and Implementation:
The report contains a thoughtful discussion of how the
integrated approach is working in practice -- to a large
extent ad hoc, and carried out more in the field than at
headquarters. We look forward to working with the new,
developing headquarters capacity.
¶11. (SBU) Sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) and other
misconduct: There has been substantial progress in
addressing this issue over the past year. Given the steps
the UN has taken to require training and to establish
reporting mechanisms, USUN should focus in particular on
the need for troop-contributing countries to discipline
their own personnel. The General Assembly approved a
model memorandum of understanding (MOU) as a basis for
discussion between the UN and potential troop contributors
on standards of conduct and procedures for addressing
allegations. The report notes that DPKO intends, subject
to review by the UN's Office of Legal Affairs, to use the
model MOU in discussions with troop contributors on
amending current agreements . The U.S. will consider any
such proposals on a case-by-case basis, and cannot comment
in advance on specifics. We understand that OIOS has
moved its field investigators in Africa to regional UN
hubs. OIOS determined that, because these officers were
not involved in programs to deter SEA misconduct, it would
be more cost effective to station them at central
locations so they could be rapidly deployed; OIOS does not
currently have sufficient investigators to assign to every
mission. However, two senior US officials, during their
recent travels to two UN missions, separately heard
complaints from senior UN officials questioning OIOS' plan
to remove these embedded investigators. The U.S. is
concerned that removing OIOS investigators from field
missions could hamper OIOS' ability to investigate
allegations of SEA in a timely manner, particularly in
allegations of rape, where evidence needs to be gathered
and secured within a very narrow timeframe. In December
the General Assembly adopted the "UN Comprehensive
Strategy on Assistance and Support to Victims of Sexual
Exploitation and Abuse by UN Staff and Related Personnel"
(the victims' assistance strategy). As reported ref B, the
strategy identified three categories of persons who would
be provided immediate and mid-term assistance -
complainants, victims (complainants whose claims have been
established), and children born as a result of SEA. The
General Assembly underlined and the strategy states
specifically that its implementation will not diminish or
replace individual responsibility for acts of SEA, which
rests with the perpetrators. We look forward to reviewing
the report being prepared on welfare and recreation, and
will give serious consideration to proposals for
reasonable provisions in mission budgets for enhancing
troop welfare. The U.S. looks forward to the
Secretary-General's report on offenses committed by UN
officials and experts on mission (professional civilian
staff, which probably includes UN police officers),
including what actions governments have taken to address
this conduct. As we argued in the Sixth Committee in
2007, the U.S. is not prepared to support the proposal for
an international convention in the absence of any evidence
about the scope of the problem and what measures are
already in place to address it.

Title: Re: Cables mentioning sexual abuses perpetrated by UN peacekeepers
Post by: jujyjuji on May 07, 2015, 15:39:48 PM
Dem. Rep. Of Congo 2005 Trafficking In Persons Report
Origin   Embassy Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Cable time   Tue, 1 Mar 2005 16:39 UTC


E.O. 12958: N/A

REF: 04 STATE 273089
¶1. (SBU) Embassy Kinshasa provides the following information
in accordance with instructions in reftel.  Responses are
keyed to reftel's numbered paragraphs (18-21).
Begin responses:
PERSONS (para 18):
¶A. The DRC is not generally a country of origin, transit or
destination for international trafficked men, women or
children. The vast majority of internal trafficking occurs in
northeastern and eastern Congo, which are mostly outside
effective transitional government control. The four major
categories of trafficked persons in DRC are: (1) children
associated with armed groups; (2) women and girls who are
abducted and forced to work as domestic servants and/ or
provide sexual services for armed group members; (3)
civilians who are forced to provide uncompensated labor for
armed groups and the Congolese military (FARDC); (4) child
prostitutes under the age of 18. The government estimates
that there are about 30,000 children associated with armed
groups in the DRC. There are no reliable estimates for other
categories of trafficked persons. Most civilians abducted by
armed groups or forced to provide labor live in remote areas
in eastern DRC outside transitional government control and go
unreported. As for underage prostitution, which occurs
throughout the DRC, the clandestine nature of this activity
combined with an ineffective police and justice system make
the phenomenon difficult to quantify. During the past year, a
number of personnel from the UN peacekeeping mission to the
Congo, known by its French acronym MONUC, have been accused
of sexually exploiting and/or raping women and girls. As of
the end of 2004, 150 cases of sexual misconduct were pending.
To combat this serious problem, MONUC has established a
curfew for military personnel and a "zero-tolerance"policy
for sexual relationships between MONUC military staff and
Congolese residents. It has also repatriated a number of
civilian and military staff, and is conducting investigations
into numerous allegations of sexual exploitation. The UN
Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has also
organized a task force at UN Headquarters to take other
steps, including the forceful promulgation of the UN
Standards of Conduct for peacekeepers.
¶B.  The vast majority of trafficking occurs internally within
the DRC. Credible sources, however, reported that an unknown
number of Congolese children were recruited out of refugee
camps in Rwanda to support ex-RCD/G combatants led by former
commanders such as General Nkunda and Colonel Mutebusi. There
were also unconfirmed reports that some children recruited in
the DRC by these commanders were sent to Rwanda for training.
MONUC also received several allegations that the governments
of Uganda and Rwanda aided and abetted Ituri commanders to
recruit and train children associated with armed groups.
¶C.  Although the demobilization of children associated with
armed groups accelerated dramatically, limited recruitment
continued. For example, the UN Secretary General's February
2005 report on children and armed conflict found that about
5,000 children have been released from the Congolese military
and armed groups since October 2003. Experts estimate that in
the four years prior to that, only 2,000 were released.  At
the same time, however, armed groups pursued recruitment
targets and forcibly recruited and re-recruited previously
demobilized child soldiers. For example, in June 2004,
ex-RCD/G combatants led by former commanders such as General
Nkunda and Colonel Mutebusi recruited children in North and
South Kivu.
Reliable estimates for other forms of trafficking do not
exist, but human rights organizations believe that government
efforts to investigate forced labor camps in Ituri and
prosecute rape cases in South Kivu have started to battle the
general climate of impunity and reduce trafficking by armed
¶D. The national disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
(DDR) process, which is funded principally by the World Bank
and is being carried out through various international NGOs,
should eventually produce more reliable figures on the actual
numbers of children associated with armed groups as well as
so-called "dependents," which often include women abducted by
various armed groups. There are no other known surveys
planned to specifically document trafficking.
¶E. Most trafficking victims are recruited or abducted by
armed groups operating in eastern DRC. In general, these
victims are kept in squalid conditions, and are threatened
with violence and death if they fail to follow orders or
attempt to escape. Abducted women remain with their captors
for several reasons including food and protection, children
born of the liaisons, and social dishonor if they were return
to their houses. Many victims of assault and trafficking are
reluctant to leave their captors for fear of rejection. For
many such women, the line between forced and voluntary
participation as an armed group "dependent" is blurry.
Underage prostitutes work in brothels throughout the DRC.
There is no evidence that trafficked persons are forced to
work in sweatshops, restaurants or other established
¶F. Children and women are the primary trafficking targets.
There are three main groups of traffickers--armed groups,
MONUC personnel, and pimps. Armed groups recruit child
soldiers; abduct women for use as sex slaves or domestic
servants; force civilians to carry goods, provide supplies
and money, and in some cases dig for minerals or provide
other labor. Most victims are forcibly abducted. Certain
MONUC personnel sexually exploited children and women. Most
victims were prostitutes, including girls between the ages of
14 and 17 who traded sex for compensation. However, the UN is
investigating a number of rape and child pornography
allegations. There are also a limited numbers of pimps who
exploit child prostitutes who often work out of economic
necessity. As nearly all trafficking is domestic and
committed by armed groups, obtaining travel documents--false
or otherwise--is not necessary to move victims.
¶G. The GDRC has demonstrated a willingness to combat the most
common forms of trafficking, including demobilizing children
associated with armed groups, providing personnel to help UN
agencies draft a national plan to combat sexual violence, and
beginning to prosecute cases of child recruitment and rape in
eastern DRC. The Congolese military has prosecuted soldiers
for TIP-related crimes. The GDRC still does not effectively
control eastern parts of the DRC where most trafficking
occurs, and has limited funds available to combat
trafficking. As a result, the GDRC does not devote
significant resources to trafficking-related issues. It does,
however, cooperate very closely with international
organizations and NGOs on related issues.
¶H. There is no evidence of high-level government complicity
in TIP. However, Congolese human rights NGOs are aware of
local authorities who tolerate underage prostitution. There
were also numerous reports that some local authorities in
eastern DRC attempted to recruit child soldiers. While
corruption is commonplace in DRC, there is no specific
information on the extent to which border or police
authorities might assist traffickers in exchange for bribes.
Government authorities are not aware of any investigations,
charges or convictions of such cases.
¶I. The GDRC has very few resources to adequately address TIP
and does not effectively control eastern parts of the country
where most trafficking occurs. In addition, prosecuting cases
is difficult due to the extremely poor state of the justice
system--from police, to courts and prisons. Corruption is
endemic throughout the DRC, but it is unclear how it affects
¶J. The government does not systematically monitor its
anti-trafficking efforts.
¶K. Prostitution is legal over the age of 14. Operating a
brothel, pimping or forced prostitution is illegal, but these
laws are rarely enforced.
PREVENTION (para 19):
¶A. The GDRC acknowledges that trafficking is a problem.
¶B. The Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Justice, Human Rights,
Labor, and Women and Family Affairs are involved in TIP
efforts.  The Ministry of Interior monitors the nation's
borders. In addition, the Ministry of Defense and the
national demobilization commission (CONADER) are working to
demobilize children associated with armed groups.
¶C. CONADER is the coordinating body for efforts to demobilize
children associated with armed groups, and is working with
other organizations to develop a national public awareness
¶D. The government collaborates with international
organizations and NGOs to address violence against women and
children, which can include a TIP element.
¶E. The government supports such programs, but is not in a
position to provide resources to execute them on its own.
¶F. The GDRC, international organizations, NGOs and civil
society work together very closely to demobilize and
reintegrate children associated with armed groups and are
starting to work more cooperatively to combat sexual based
violence. The government and MONUC have worked together
closely to break up known forced labor camps in Ituri.
¶G. The GDRC does not adequately monitor its borders,
particularly regions not yet under the control of the
transitional government. Traditional entry/exit points such
as airports, land border crossings and water ports are
monitored by the Ministry of the Interior in regions
controlled by the transitional government. Post is unaware of
any monitoring of immigration and emigration patterns for
evidence of trafficking.
¶H. There is no formal coordination and communication between
various GDRC agencies on TIP. There is a national
Anti-Corruption Commission.
¶I. The government coordinates and collaborates with
international organizations and NGOs on the issue of children
associated with armed groups. For example, the Ministry of
Social Affairs chairs CONADER's technical steering group on
issues related to child soldiers. The government also
collaborates on issues of violence against women and
children, which sometimes addresses TIP.
¶J. With the exception of the national DDR plan, the GDRC does
not have a national plan in place to address TIP.
¶K. There is no single entity or person responsible for
developing anti-trafficking programs within the government,
though the government continues to express a desire to
establish a TIP task force.
¶A. Although there is not a specific law prohibiting
trafficking in persons, laws prohibit slavery, forced labor,
rape, and prostitution under the age of 14.
¶B. Penalties for labor exploitation range from six months to
twenty years.
¶C. Penalties for rape or forcible sexual assault range from
six months to twenty years.
¶D. The GDRC investigated and/or prosecuted a limited number
of traffickers for recruiting soldiers, committing serious
human rights abuses, operating forced labor camps, and
committing rape during 2004. In May, the Armed Forces of the
Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) arrested former
Mundundu-40 Commander Biyoyo for unauthorized recruitment of
soldiers, including minors. Biyoyo, however, was given a
provisional release and was said to have fled the country.
During mid-year, the Bunia Prosecutor in Ituri District,
Orientale Province interviewed several persons in connection
with forced labor camps near Lake Albert. The judicial team
was able to collect 31 testimonies of victims, which
confirmed repeated, systematic and massive human rights
violations by Ngiti militia, including killings, mutilations,
sexual slavery, slavery and looting over a period starting in
April 2003.
MONUC and the Government arrested members of Ituri armed
groups accused of committing grave human rights violations
over the past several years.  By October, over 50 were in
government custody awaiting trial. However, in November, Hema
prison guards helped 31 Hema prisoners from the Union of
Congolese Patriots (UPC) armed militia group escape.
Over the past year and a half, a local NGO in South Kivu won
57 of 60 cases of sexual violence it brought to court.
Sentences ranged between 10 months and 20 years and included
reparations to the victims and their families.  Since
November 2004, 10 judicial decisions were made in favor of
the victims, eight of whom were raped by soldiers.
The GDRC cannot provide specific information about
trafficking cases because it does not maintain detailed court
¶E. Armed groups in eastern DRC traffic children associated
with armed groups, abduct women for domestic labor and sexual
services, and compel civilians to provide forced labor.
Family members and pimps contribute to underage prostitution.
Certain MONUC personnel sexually exploited and/or raped women
and girls. To combat this problem, MONUC repatriated a number
of civilian and military staff, and implemented a
non-fraternization policy for its staff. Most trafficking is
conducted by individuals and armed groups. There is no
evidence that large international organized crime syndicates,
agencies, or marriage brokers are involved in trafficking in
the DRC. Some Congolese NGOs report that local officials and
police are sometimes complicit in underage prostitution.
¶F. The government has limited resources to investigate cases
of trafficking. DRC criminal procedure and law prevent the
police from engaging in covert operations.
¶G. The government does not provide any specialized training
for government officials in how to recognize, investigate, or
prosecute instances of trafficking. The Ministry of Foreign
Affairs has expressed an interest in training immigration
officers about TIP, however they do not currently possess the
¶H. The government cooperated with the governments of Belgium,
France, and other European countries on illegal migration
issues, which might have included TIP elements. There are no
reliable records on the number of such cases.
¶I. There are no records or known instances of the government
extraditing persons charged with trafficking in other
¶J. The FARDC has made significant efforts to demobilize and
reintegrate children associated with armed groups into their
communities. Many former rebel groups that are marginally
integrated into the Congolese military, however, still
contain large numbers of children. For example, a number of
Ituri armed group leaders who recently became generals in the
Congolese military have large numbers (in some cases 40% of
their forces) of child soldiers within their ranks. In
addition, some Congolese NGOs report that local officials and
police are sometimes complicit in underage prostitution.
¶K. In May, the FARDC arrested former Mundundu-40 Commander
Biyoyo for unauthorized recruitment of soldiers, including
minors. Biyoyo, however, was given a provisional release and
was said to have fled the country.
¶L. The DRC does not have an identified child sex tourism
¶M. GDRC ratification dates of the following international
instruments are:
--ILO Convention 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate
action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor.
March 28, 2001.
--ILO Convention 29 and 105 on forced or compulsory labor.
June 20, 2001.
--The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of
the Child (CRC) on the sale of children, child prostitution,
and child pornography. March 5, 2001.
--The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the UN
Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.  March 5,
¶A. The government works with international organizations and
NGOs to provide reinsertion programs for demobilized
soldiers, including children. NGOs report that they hope to
eventually include soldiers' "dependents," which often
includes abducted women in program benefits. The government
has no resources to provide relief to other trafficking
¶B. The GDRC does not provide anti-trafficking funds for NGOs.
Rather, international donors provide funding to foreign and
domestic NGOs that provide services for women and children
who are victims of abuse, including trafficking.
¶C. There is no formal screening and referral process in place
to transfer trafficking victims to NGOs.
¶D. The rights of victims are generally respected. There is no
evidence that any were detained, jailed or prosecuted.
¶E. The government does not encourage victims to assist in the
investigation or prosecution of trafficking. Victims may file
civil suits or seek legal action against traffickers. The
poor state of the justice system impedes victims' access to
legal redress. In South Kivu, defendants found guilty of rape
were sentenced to pay restitution to victims.
¶F. The government has no resources to provide protection for
victims and witnesses of trafficking.
¶G. The government does not provide specialized
trafficking-related training to government officials either
within the DRC or overseas.
¶H. The government has no resources to assist repatriated
nationals who are victims of trafficking.
¶I. The principal international organizations, NGOs and
government agencies that work with child soldier reinsertion
and violence against women and children include UNICEF, CARE,
Save the Children UK, International Committee of the Red
Cross, the Belgian Red Cross, the International Rescue
Committee, International Foundation for Self-Help and
Education, War Child Holland, and the International Labor
Organization (funded in part by the U.S. Department of
Labor).  The GDRC agency, CONADER, also plays a large role
facilitating the process.  Most funding for child soldier
reinsertion comes from the Multi-Country Demobilization and
Reintegration Program of the World Bank. Under an interim
demobilization plan prior to large-scale DDR across the
country, these organizations are providing the following
services to children associated with armed groups:
identification and separation from adult militia members,
discharge, relocation to temporary transition centers, family
reunification or placement in foster homes, and identifying
and strengthening needed services for the children in their
new communities.
TIP Heroes (para 22)
A local NGO in South Kivu has been working tirelessly to end
criminal impunity in eastern DRC by helping victims prosecute
rapists. Over the past year and a half, AED (Action for
Right's Education), working through a USAID-funded umbrella
grant managed by the International Rescue Committee, has won
57 of 60 cases of sexual violence it brought to court and
successfully mediated 23 cases out of court. Sentences ranged
from 10 months and 20 years and included reparations to the
victims and their families.  Since November 2004, 10
perpetrators have been found guilty of rape, including eight
soldiers. In total, AED has registered 323 cases and is
continuing to pursue these cases and new ones in court.  AED
recently received an additional $50,000 in democracy and
human rights funds to continue its efforts.
(Note. AED's Coordinator, Bisimwa Ntakobajira has no
derogatory information or visa ineligibilities. End note.)
End responses.
¶2. (U) Point of contact is Meghan Moore, 243-81-225-5872, IVG
934-2620, email: [email protected]

Title: Re: Cables mentioning sexual abuses perpetrated by UN peacekeepers
Post by: jujyjuji on May 07, 2015, 15:47:22 PM
Ethiopia: The Effectiveness Of Un Efforts To Combat Sexual Exploitation And Abuse In Un Peacekeeping Missions
Origin Embassy Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
Cable time Mon, 17 Jul 2006 13:44 UTC
Classification CONFIDENTIAL
Referenced by 07ADDISABABA2117


E.O. 12958: DECL: 07/13/2016
¶1. (SBU) SUMMARY. Neither host government, local media nor
NGOs report any significant sexual misconduct or trafficking
in persons (TIP) attributable to UN peacekeeping personnel in
Ethiopia. However, both NGOs and UNMEE headquarters report
several dozen children born out of wedlock who have allegedly
been fathered by UN peacekeepers. END SUMMARY.
¶2. (U) In response to reftel, Embassy Addis Ababa made
inquiries regarding the United Nations mission efforts to
prevent TIP and sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) activity
among its peacekeeping forces in Ethiopia. United Nations
forces in Ethiopia are primarily stationed on the Ethiopian
and Eritrean border (Tigray region of Ethiopia), serving in
the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE).
In making this assessment, post contacted the Ethiopian MFA,
local UNMEE staff, NGOs working in the Tigray area and
reviewed recent press regarding UN work in Ethiopia.
¶3. (SBU) The Ethiopian MFA reported not having received any
information to suggest that either UNMEE employees or
peacekeepers have been involved in TIP or SEA activities.
Further, in the recent past, the local Ethiopian media has
not published any such accusations. Locally engaged staff
(LES) at post report that, in the capital Addis Ababa at
least, there is no popular perception of such activity.
¶4. (C) In contacting NGOs operating in the northern Tigray
region adjacent to the border with Eritrea where most of the
UNMEE staff live and work, post received a contrasting
perspective. Specifically, representatives of Catholic
Relief Services (CRS) allege that some UNMEE personnel are
engaged in illegal sexual activity with young women in
Adigrat and other towns in Tigray. CRS reports that some
UNMEE personnel ask sexual favors from young women for money.
 While the relationship is allegedly consensual, parents of
young women in the area are allegedly increasingly concerned
by reports of such activity. Some women are said to have
borne children fathered by UNMEE personnel, while none
receive child support. CRS representatives explained that
UNMEE personnel are stationed for a limited time and when
they leave the country, the stigma attached to the fatherless
children is significant in this traditional, conservative
community. Post does not have statistics for the number of
women involved in this issue, but CRS reports the number
could be as high as twenty, and that possibly many more go
unreported. CRS indicated that there are no reports of TIP
¶5. (C) Post discussed such allegations with UNMEE
headquarters staff in Addis Ababa. UNMEE reported that in
the past they have received some complaints of peacekeepers
in the Tigray region fathering children with Ethiopian women
and leaving Ethiopia with no financial compensation for the
mothers. However, they indicated there have been no reports
recently. UNMEE representatives also pointed out that
increasing attention has been paid to this matter and that
all incoming UN staff and peacekeepers receive &lectures8
from UN management on proper behavior and etiquette while in
Ethiopia. Further, a Conduct and Disipline team has been
created by local UN management with the mandate to
investigate any such claims and to bring any reports of such
accusations to the attention of UN management. Aside from
the few reported paternity cases, UN mission staff in Addis
Ababa have not received any complaints regarding TIP or SEA
activity in Ethiopia.

Source/ More:


Related cable:

Unmee: Confronting Sexual Abuse And Exploitation
Origin   Embassy Asmara (Eritrea)
Cable time   Mon, 23 Jul 2007 08:38 UTC
Classification   CONFIDENTIAL
Source (
References   07ASMARA56
Referenced by   08ASMARA29


C O N F I D E N T I A L ASMARA 000629
E.O. 12958: DECL: 07/23/2017
REF: A) STATE 89356 B) ASMARA 00056
Classified By: CDA Jennifer A. McIntyre, for reasons 1.4 (b)
and (d).
¶1. (U) The following is in response to reftel A.
¶2. (C) Since the establishment of the UN Peacekeeping Mission
to Eritrea and Ethiopia (UNMEE) in 2001, there have been few
reported incidents of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) and
trafficking in persons (TIP) within Eritrea.  The Chief of
the UNMEE Human Rights Office (HRO) Mamadi Diakite said that
there were no substantiated incidents of either SEA or TIP
during the reporting period, but that there continues to be
some new cases of UNMEE peacekeepers and civilian staff who
are pressured to provide financial support to children they
have fathered while in the country.
¶3. (U) UNMEE continues to require that all military personnel
participate in quarterly awareness and prevention programs,
which includes HIV/AIDS, SEA and TIP.  Civilian employees
receive similar training upon arrival at the mission.  Mr.
Mamadi said that the zero tolerance policy is heavily
stressed during training.
¶4. (U) There have been no formal changes in the panel
investigation system (see reftel B, para 4).  The Office of
Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has recently added a Conduct
and Disciplinary Unit (CDU) in Asmara that will check into
new cases of abuse.  The department has only been in place
for two weeks and has a staff of two.  Mr. Mamadi was not
certain of the role the CDU will play, other than it is
supposed to streamline the investigation of internal claims
of SEA and TIP and that it reports directly to DPKO and not
to his office.  At this time it is unclear whether the CDU or
the HRO will play the role on any investigative panels.
¶5. (U) UNMEE,s outreach efforts to the local population
continue to be extremely difficult (reftel B, para 5).  The
local media is completely controlled by the Government of the
State of Eritrea (GSE), leaving UNMEE with little capability
of making direct contact with the population.  The Eritrean
population,s perception of UNMEE remains unchanged (reftel
B, para 6), although many people worry about what will happen
if it loses its mandate.
¶6. (C)  Comment:  Mr. Mamadi (protect) painted a bleak
picture of how SEA and TIP cases are handled.  He said he has
been a member of eight previous peacekeeping forces, and has
found the working conditions in Eritrea to be the worst of
his career.  He claimed that the HRO has been blocked out of
most local investigations, which are almost always handled at
the sector level by the local commander or within the force
structure (up to and including the force commander).  The HRO
is only called upon if it has a needed area of expertise.
Although the zero tolerance policy is well accepted at
mission headquarters, it does not seem to filter down to
remote areas.  The force commanders often reassign personnel
accused of SEA to other commands within the mission.  In
other cases, local deals are struck.  In neither instance is
a case file kept.   In the majority of cases, HRO is not
informed of the facts, conclusions, recommendations, or
dispensations of the boards of inquiry.  HRO generally
becomes aware of cases through the complainant or a local
Eritrean official, after the fact and based on hearsay,
making it difficult to collect statistical data.   These
cases almost always concern the aftermath of a private
settlement (usually paternity) brokered by a local Eritrean
official and the sector commander, resulting from a
consensual sexual relationship.  The UNMEE soldier is often
repatriated to his country of origin, or rotated within the
mission, leaving the Eritrean mother with little or no
recourse for enforcing the settlement.  Mr. Mamadi added
that many of the incoming soldiers do not speak English which
is another area of concern, as the HRO staff is limited in
its ability to communicate with the soldiers and provide
necessary training.
¶7. (C) Comment con,t:  Mr. Mamadi (protect) also expressed
concerns that UNMEE management was creating an environment in
which HRO cannot effectively accomplish its mission.  The HRO
staff has been cut from 17 positions to a total of 10 for
2008 and the administrative staff has been reassigned,
leaving the HRO officers with administrative duties that take
away from their limited time in the field and prevent them
from carrying out their mandate.  Mr. Mamadi said that there
is little or no synchronization between the missions on the
Eritrean and Ethiopian sides of the border, and that this
artificial division has a negative impact on his ability to
investigate claims.  He indicated that empire-building is
rampant in the administration of the mission due to the lack
of an SRSG, and he stressed several times his wish that the
USG push for an appointment as a way to solve some of the
mission,s problems, as well as address the deteriorating
moral of the staff.  End Comment.

Title: Re: Cables mentioning sexual abuses perpetrated by UN peacekeepers
Post by: jujyjuji on May 07, 2015, 15:52:44 PM
Sex Abuse Charges Against Un Peacekeepers
Origin   Embassy Khartoum (Sudan)
Cable time   Mon, 8 Jan 2007 17:02 UTC
Classification   CONFIDENTIAL
References   07KHARTOUM18

E.O. 12958: DECL: 01/08/2017
     ¶B. STATE 0993
Classified By: CDA C. Hume, Reason: Section 1.4 (b) and (d)
¶1.  (U) After a UK newspaper reported that UN Mission in
Sudan (UNMIS) personnel engaged in sexual exploitation of
children, the UN confirmed that four Bangladeshi peacekeepers
had been repatriated over the charges and that their cases
will be pursued in Bangladesh.  The UN also confirmed that
there are 13 ongoing investigations of serious misconduct,
"including sexual exploitation and abuse."  Government of
Southern Sudan (GOSS) officials expressed outrage over the
allegations, and the fact that UNMIS did not inform them of
the problem earlier.  GOSS officials, and some independent
observers, also question the timing of the press report,
which they believe was intended to discredit the UN.  The
Khartoum-based Government of National Unity (GNU) seized the
opportunity to bash the UN and sanctioned a public
demonstration over the abuse allegations in Khartoum January
¶8.  The GNU's outrage apparently does not extend to
allegations of Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) involvement in sexual
abuse of children in the south.  UNMIS and other UN agencies
in southern Sudan are reviewing and beefing up their existing
program to combat sexual abuse.  End Summary.
Press Reports Spark Angry Response
¶2.  (U) The UK's Daily Telegraph reported January 2 that it
had gathered accounts from more than 20 children in Juba,
southern Sudan, describing prostitution and other sexual
abuse by UNMIS military and civilian personnel.  The report
added that the Sudanese government in Khartoum had video
footage of Bangladeshi UN personnel having sex with three
young girls.  The newspaper story cited what it called a
draft internal report by the United Nations Children's Fund
(UNICEF) in July 2005 detailing UN sexual offenses.  Since
the Daily Telegraph report, other media have published
similar allegations, including a British Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) account describing UN solicitation of child
prostitutes in Juba and mixed-race children abandoned by
their UN peacekeeper fathers.
¶3.  (U) UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, on only his second
day in office, quickly issued a statement reiterated the UN's
"zero tolerance" policy toward sexual abuse--"meaning zero
complacency and zero impunity."  The statement said the UN
was "looking into the substance of the press reports to
determine if the allegations are new or are existing cases
already under investigation."  A UN spokesperson later
revealed that UNMIS had "already repatriated four
peacekeepers from Bangladesh" in connection with the
allegations, and said there were 13 ongoing investigations of
serious misconduct, "including sexual misconduct and abuse."
¶4.  (C) GOSS officials were outraged over the reports.
Minister of Presidential Affairs Luca Biong vowed that "if
any persons are proved to have committed these terrible
crimes, the government will take all possible steps to ensure
the perpetrators are brought to justice."  GOSS Minister of
Gender Mary Kiden Kimbo summoned UNMIS and UNICEF officials
for a tongue-lashing and demanded full disclosure of all
complaints against UN personnel.  She had learned of these
charges only through the media, Kiden told us, and was not
aware of the reported 13 ongoing investigations until
informed by ConGen staff.  Kiden later called on members of
the public to come forward with any additional information
about sexual misbehavior by UN personnel.
Questions on the Substance
And Timing of Allegations
¶5.  (C) GOSS officials nevertheless question both the
substance and the timing of the Daily Telegraph report.
Research on the story was apparently finished long ago, Kiden
told us.  She had been interviewed for the story in March
2006 and told the journalist truthfully that she was aware of
no specific allegations against UN personnel.  UNMIS regional
coordinator James Ellery, interviewed in May 2006, told the
journalist UNMIS had investigated allegations against its
personnel and found no substantiating evidence.  Ellery
KHARTOUM 00000031  002 OF 002
departed Sudan last October.  The July 2005 UNICEF report
cited in the newspaper story was issued before the GOSS was
formed, Kiden pointed out indignantly.  (The Daily Telegraph
asserted that GOSS failed to investigate the charges because
of concern over maintaining good relations with the UN.)
¶6.  (C) CDA raised the issue of sexual abuse with Deputy
Special Representative of the Secretary General (DSRSG) for
the United Nations (UN) in Sudan Manuel Aranda d,Silva
January 5 (Ref. A).  D'Silva said many of the allegations in
the article were false, and claimed that the January 3
release was timed to coincide with the swearing in of the new
UNSYG.  An independent Sudanese newspaper has speculated that
the GNU leaked the information to undermine current efforts
to deploy UN peacekeeping force to Darfur.
¶7.  (C) ConGen staff examined the July 2005 "UNICEF report"
quoted by Daily Telegraph.  Though identified as the work of
a "UNICEF Child Protection Consultant," the document is in
fact a three-page summary of the consultant's findings
drafted by UNMIS, according Juba-based UNICEF personnel.  In
two short paragraphs the document cites the possibility that
UN staff "may be involved in sexual exploitation," and
recounts a single instance in which a UN vehicle was reported
seen picking up three young girls at night.  The remainder of
the document includes far more detailed allegations against
members of the Khartoum-based Sudan Armed Forces (SAF),
including child abduction, child prostitution, and the
abandonment of girlfriends and children.  It is unclear why
those allegations are not mentioned in the article.
¶8.  (C) UNICEF personnel believe this report has been shared
with the GNU, and that the GNU is aware of allegations of
misbehavior by SAF forces.  (They add that GOSS is also
likely aware of misbehavior by the southern-based Sudan
People's Liberation Army (SPLA), and that neither government
is taking effective action to prevent child exploitation by
its forces.)  The GNU sanctioned a public demonstration
against the UN over the sex abuse scandal in downtown
Khartoum January 8.  The demonstration ended without incident.
Next Steps
¶9.  (U) GOSS and UN investigations of reports in the Daily
Telegraph and other media are underway, but in early stages.
UNMIS personnel receive training on the UN code of conduct
prior to deployment, the Sector 1 commander told us January
¶5.  That training will be reinforced immediately, he said.
UNICEF staff say that all UN personnel in southern Sudan are
briefed on the "zero tolerance" policy, and posters against
sexual exploitation figure prominently in UNMIS and other UN
offices in Juba.  Since mid-2005, UN personnel have been
banned from two locations in Juba believed to be frequented
by prostitutes.  Neither the Sector 1 commander nor other UN
personnel in Sudan appear to know whether the four deported
Bangladeshi peacekeepers are in fact facing criminal charges
in their native country.  UNMIS has promised much closer
cooperation with GNU and GOSS in ongoing investigations of
specific cases of alleged abuse, and GOSS officials say they
will continue public outreach and increase their own
monitoring of UN behavior.  Finally, Bangladeshi peacekeepers
in southern Sudan have been confined to barracks after dark
until further notice.